A Neuro-Symbolic System over Knowledge Graphs for Link Prediction

Tracking #: 3324-4538

This paper is currently under review
Authors: 
Ariam Rivas
Diego Collarana
Maria Torrente
Maria-Esther Vidal1

Responsible editor: 
Guest Editors NeSy 2022

Submission type: 
Full Paper
Abstract: 
Neuro-Symbolic Artificial Intelligence (AI) focuses on integrating symbolic and sub-symbolic systems to enhance the performance and explainability of predictive models. Symbolic and sub-symbolic approaches differ fundamentally in how they represent data and make use of data features to reach conclusions. Neuro-symbolic systems have recently received significant attention in the scientific community. However, despite efforts in neural-symbolic integration, symbolic processing can still be better exploited, mainly when these hybrid approaches are defined on top of knowledge graphs. This work is built on the statement that knowledge graphs can naturally represent the convergence between data and their contextual meaning (i.e., knowledge). We propose a hybrid system that resorts to symbolic reasoning, expressed as a deductive database, to augment the contextual meaning of entities in a knowledge graph, thus, improving the performance of link prediction implemented using knowledge graph embedding (KGE) models. An entity context is defined as the ego network of the entity in a knowledge graph. Given a link prediction task, the proposed approach deduces new RDF triples in the ego networks of the entities that correspond to the heads and tails of the prediction task on the knowledge graph (KG). Since knowledge graphs may be incomplete and sparse, the facts deduced by the symbolic system not only reduce sparsity but also make explicit meaningful relations among the entities that compose an entity ego network. As a proof of concept, our approach is applied over a KG for lung cancer to predict treatment effectiveness. The empirical results put the deduction power of deductive databases into perspective. They indicate that making explicit deduced relationships in the ego networks empowers all the studied KGE models to generate more accurate links.
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