Multilinguality and LLOD: A Survey Across Linguistic Description Levels

Tracking #: 3591-4805

Dagmar Gromann
Elena-Simona Apostol
Christian Chiarcos1
Marco Cremaschi3
Jorge Gracia1
Katerina Gkirtzou
Chaya Liebeskind
Liudmila Mockiene
Michael Rosner
Ineke Schuurman
Gilles Sérasset
Purificação Silvano
Blerina Spahiu1
Andrius Utka
Ciprian-Octavian Truica
Giedrė Valūnaitė Oleškevičienė

Responsible editor: 
Harald Sack

Submission type: 
Survey Article
Limited accessibility to language resources and technologies represents a challenge for the analysis, preservation, and documentation of natural languages other than English. Linguistic Linked (Open) Data (LLOD) holds the promise to ease the creation, linking, and reuse of multilingual linguistic data across distributed and heterogeneous resources. However, individual language resources and technologies accommodate or target different linguistic description levels, e.g. morphology, syntax, phonology, and pragmatics. In this comprehensive survey, the state-of-the-art of multilinguality and LLOD is being represented with a particular focus on linguistic description levels, identifying open challenges and gaps as well as proposing an ideal ecosystem for multilingual LLOD across description levels. This survey seeks to contribute an introductory text for newcomers to the field of multilingual LLOD, uncover gaps and challenges to be tackled by the LLOD community in reference to linguistic description levels, and present a solid basis for a future best practice of multilingual LLOD across description levels.
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Solicited Reviews:
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Review #1
By Philipp Cimiano submitted on 31/Dec/2023
Review Comment:

I would like to thank the authors for addressing all my comments from the previous reviewing round. The article has improved substantially and I find this is an excellent review of the state of multilingualism in LLOD. I have not major criticisms or reservations. I have some minor stylistic comments though below. I leave it to the discretion of the authors whether they want to fix them, as some of them might be a question of style.

Page 3

Gil et al. recently argue -> have recently argued

Page 4 bottom

present in the LLOD COMMA (ii) the representations and models that are used ... COMMA and Iiii) the use cases

Page 5 Section 2.3

types of entities identified above: resource, tool, and knowledge structure

Page 6

retain some connection to language in some way => too vague and indefinite by the multiple use of "some"

Seiten 3, Approach

and details on the obtained => I believe detail (on) is not grammatical / correct

Page 7

in total 16 experts: Can you clarify who these experts are? Are they authors of the paper?

Page 8

As you can see in Table 2 COMMA some of the 16 experts

Page 9

depending on from which keyword it was returned => depending on the keyword that it was returned for

Page 10

In cases were a 2 was assigned => In cases where a score of 2 was assigned (emphasize or tt 2)

A lower number of publications on the final, yet ongoing year of this survey would be expected => sounds odd, either final year or ongoing year, some commas missing

Page 13

within specific grammatical contexts COMMA and derivational morphology

a binding phenomenon of elements within and across sentence*S*

as reported in Declerck et al. => reported by

[61] COMMA which shows how

Page 15

as well as on other efforts to standards discourse annotation schemas that originally => not understandable, do you mean "efforts to standardize"

Page 16

but "extols" is used very rarely, is there possibly a more frequent and thus common verb?

Page 17

word origins and histories is frequently a part of dictionaries

Suggested rewriting: word origins and histories are frequently included in dictionaries

Page 19

Comgin from page 18 the sentence is odd / incomplete: More recently ... of the vartrans module of OntoLex-Lemon that enables, which reflects ...

role cultural connotations play in the lack of => role that cultural connotations play

Page 20

about provenance /meta-data) COMMA and multimedia representations of data

and standards and COMMA second COMMMA, to the underlying ...

Page 25

which seems to not be available => which seems not to be

both resources coudeincludingld ???

Page 28

this survey articles shows *THAT* some representation models

Page 33

with a high degree of usability and representation in as well ... odd and ungrammatical, in WHAT ?

Review #2
By Mehwish Alam submitted on 10/Feb/2024
Review Comment:

Comments from my review have been addressed in very much detail by the authors. Given that I am inclined towards acceptance of the article.

Review #3
Anonymous submitted on 14/Feb/2024
Review Comment:

The authors have carefully incorporated my concerns in the paper. My main concern in the previous version was the utility of the resource and its application areas and the authors have included them in this current version. The paper overall is well written and is a good contribution and provides a vivid overview of the field of multilingual resources in LLOD. I would like to accept the paper