An Ontology for the Tajweed of the Quran

Tracking #: 2768-3982

This paper is currently under review
Authors: 
Amna Basharat
Ramsha Amin

Responsible editor: 
Special Issue Cultural Heritage 2021

Submission type: 
Ontology Description
Abstract: 
In the current information systems, many fields use ontologies for modeling domain knowledge to enable interoperable semantics. There is a plethora of knowledge sources within the Islamic heritage that derive from the primary sources of the Quran and the Hadith (Prophetic narrations), however, there is lack of sufficient ontologies and linked data to better describe and semantically annotate the information related to the Quran. Although several Quranic themes based ontologies have been developed to facilitate the retrieval of knowledge from the Quran, there is still a lack of comprehensive knowledge-based reasoning models created for the Tajweed of the Quran - the science of Quranic recitation. In this paper we propose the design of an ontology for capturing the core elements of Quranic recitation i.e. Tajweed. The knowledge model was developed by using the Protege framework and state-of-the-art semantic web technologies (OWL and SPARQL). METHONTOLOGY, an iterative design methodology was used for its development. The ontology focuses on describing the articulation points of Arabic letters and their characteristics together with the Tajweed rules (rules of recitation). Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) was used for the implementation of the Tajweed rules. To evaluate the ontology model, a hybrid approach was used. Expert driven validation and criteria based evaluation was conducted for the Arabic letters and their characteristics to evaluate the accuracy and structure of ontology. Results from the experts were incrementally improved before evaluating it with the next expert which results in 100\% accuracy. Tajweed rules were evaluated using data driven approach on the complete text of the Holy Quran. Also, an annotated dataset of the entire Quran was generated in OWL format using the developed tajweed ontology.
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